English Period (1934-1946)

From Karl Polanyi
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Key : “Name” or „Name”: article; Name: book; (Name): draft article; (Name): draft book; 'Name': Speech or Conference; <Name>: Plan; To {Personal Name}: letter


World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
In France, strong manifestation against the Third Republic after the Stavisky affair John Macmurray & H.G. Wood (eds.), Christianity and Communism[1] 02.06
03.xx Agrarische Zwangswirtschaft in England[Agrarian Compulsory Economy in England]
03.xx Wirtschaftsprogramm der Samuel-Liberalen[Economic Program of the Samuel Liberals]
03.xx Ende der Slums[End of the Slums]
03.14 What three-fold state?
P. works at Christianity and the Social Revolution 03.28 To Joseph Needham
1st national conference of the New Britain Movement, at Leamington Spa P. works at “The Fascist Transformation” (without exact date, until 1935) 03.31
04.xx England und die Abrüstung[England and Disarmament]
04.xx Englisches Stahlstatut[English Steel Act]
04.xx England für Budgetwharheit[England for Budget Truth]
05.xx Technologische Arbeitslosigkeit[Technological Unemployment]
05.xx Elliot oder Empire?[Elliot or Empire?]
05.xx Probleme der Demokratie in England[Problems of Democracy in England]
05.xx Lohntarif-Bill in Lancashire
05.09 Corporative Austria - A Functional Society?
05.19 To Joseph Needham
05.23 Othmar Spann, the Philosopher of Fascism
06.xx Lancashire im Fegefeuer[Lancashire in Purgatory]
06.xx Lancashire als Menschheitsfrage / als Menschheitsproblem” [Lancashire as a Question of Humanity]
06.06 Spann’s fascist Utopia
06.08 To Joseph Needham
To Joseph Needham (2)
06.20 Fascism and Marxian terminology
06.26 From the Editor of The Manchester Guardian
06.27 Marxism re-stated
08.01 Rudolf Steiner’s Economy
2nd national conference of the New Britain Movement, at Glastonbury 08.04-06
08.xx England überlegt[England Considers]
08.xx Labour und die Eisenindustrie[Labor and the Iron Industry]
09.xx Gewerkschaftstagung in Weymouth[Trade Union Conference in Weymouth]
09.xx England bremst Russland ab[England slows down Russia]
09.xx Wo hält Sowjetrussland?[Where does Soviet Russia hold?]
09.23 To Joseph Needham
09.12 To Joseph Needham
09.29 Pickfords Travel Service
10.xx Labour a Southport
10.05 To Joseph Needham
10.11 To Joseph Needham
10.19 From the Institute of International Education
10.24 From Oszkár Jászi?
10.25 From Pickfords Travel Service
10.29 From Pickfords Travel Service
10.30 To the Institute of International Education
10.31 To Joseph Needham
Alfred Richard Orage dies 11.xx Tory Planwirtschafter[Tory Economic Plan]
11.xx Die Liberalen für Empirehandel[The Liberals for Empire Trade]
11.02 To the Institute of International Education
11.12 From Pickfords Travel Service
11.14 To to the Institute of International Education
11.16 To the Institute of International Education
11.17 From Pickfords Travel Service
11.19 From the Institute of International Education to Oszkár Jászi
11.21 To the Institute of International Education
11.28 From the Institute of International Education
11.28 From the Institute of International Education
11.28 To the Institute of International Education
11.30 To the Institute of International Education
12.03 To the Institute of International Education
12.04 From the Institute of International Education
12.11 To the Institute of International Education
Shipping from London to New York with Steamship "Aquitania" 12.18
12.21 From the Institute of International Education
Arrival at New York 12.24
12.27 From Oszkár Jászi
12.27 From the Institute of International Education
A friend, N.J., from “Trenton” or “Franklin” cannot come to NY[2] 12.27
From Joseph Needham
Marxian Philosophy
(A Christian View of Marxism)
(Marxism and Christianity)
Preliminary Syllabus of a Course of Study in The Theory of Politics
Quotations of an Unknown Book


World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
H. G. Wells, The New America: The New World
John Macmurray, Creative Society: A Study of the Relation of Christianity to Communism & Reason and Emotion
Dissolution of the New Britain Movement
Polanyi is in the USA
01.08-02.15 'Fascism: National Planning and International Anarchy'
'Germany - Is it Beyond Repair?'
'Italy - Was it Worthwhile?'
'Can Austria Remain Independent?'
'The Five Danubian States: Why Cannot They Cooperate?'
'The Powers: Both Help and Hindrance to a New European Order'
02.17 'Fascism and Christian Ideals' (Lecture in United Church)
02.18 'Deadlock' (Parkville, Park College)
02.19 'Fascism and Christian Ideals' (Parkville, Mo.)
03.22 'The Youth Movement in Europe' (Danville, Ky.)
03.31 'Fascism and Christian Ideals in Europe' (Asheville)
04.17 The Social State and the Three-Fold Parliament
xx.xx Christianity and the Social Revolution (w/ LEWIS John et KITCHIN Donald K. (dir.))
The Essence of Fascism
06.xx England in Europa
06.xx Roosevelt im Verfassungskampf[Roosevelt in the constitutional Struggle]
The Eleventh Hour (Mitrinović's nebula]) is stopped 07.__
08.xx Amerika im Schmelztiegel[America in the Melting Pot]
08.xx England, die Völkerbundmacht[England, the League of Nations]
08.xx Abessinischer Konflikt[Abyssinian Conflict]
10.xx Der Suez-Kanal[The Suez Canal]
10.xx England und der abessinische Krieg[England and the Abyssinian War]
12.xx London: Markstein 1935[Markstein 1935]
London: Englands Wahlen[England's Elections]
Reflections on a Visit to Southern College
'Compulsion and Defence'


World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
Peter Drucker, “The Jewish Question in Germany”;
John Macmurray, The Structure of Religious Experience;
Victor Gollancz, The Extermination of the Jews in Germany;
Jacques Maritain, True Humanism
Christian Left Meeting 01.18 Christian Left Meeting
01.19 To R.H. Tawney
01.xx Roosevelt im Kampf[Roosevelt in the Fight]
02.xx T.V.A. – Ein amerikanisches Wirtschaftsexperiment[T.V.A. - An American Economic Experiment]
P. and John Macmurray meet Dr. Tawney 02.12 Notes on a Talk with Dr. Tawney
03.xx Deutschland und Italien[Germany and Italy]
03.17-18 'Social Values in the Post-war World'
04.xx Edens Linie[Eden Line]
05.xx Englands außenpolitische Krise[England's Foreign Policy Crisis]
05.xx Englands Abwehr[England's Defense]
06.xx Russischer Verfassungswandel[Russian Constitutional Change]
Beginning of the Spanish Civil War 08.xx Spanien und Frankreich[Spain and France]
08.xx Spanische Entscheidungen und die Weltpolitik[Spanish Decisions and World Politics]
08.xx The Nature of the Present World Crisis
xx.xx The Religious Nature of the Crisis
Polanyi is in the USA 10.13 The Corporate State
10.19 Great Britain's Foreign Policy To-Day
11.03 The Spanish Situation
11.06 A Key to European Politics
12.01 Observations on Education for Politics in England and the United States
12.15 Roosevelts Stellung[Roosevelt's Position]
(Marx on Corporatism)
(The Paradox of Freedom)


World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
02.xx Arbeitsrecht in U.S.A.[Employment Law in U.S.A.]
P. is in Leeds 03.05 "Nationalism in Europe" (Student Christian Movement Group)
Catholic Church enacts ”Mit brennender Sorge” 03.10
03.xx Education for politics in England and the United States
The Educated Workman - What he is Contributing to Industry?“
04.xx Amerikanisches Gewerkschaftsgesetz verfassungsmäßig[American Trade Union Act Constitutionally]
P. gives a conference for the Christian Left 04.02 'The Christian and the Economic Crisis'
05.xx England und die Donau[England and the Donau]
06.xx Deutsch-englischer Zwischenfall[German-English Incident]
The Polanyis install in a “sunny rural little bungalow that [is] situated in a field overlooking a picturesque valley dotted with oast houses, just at the point at which Kent divided “between the ugly and the beautiful part,” but facing the latter.[3] 07.xx Mit englischen Augen gesehen[Seen with English Eyes]
07.xx Roosevelts strategischer Rückzug[Roosevelt's strategic Retreat]
08.xx Chamberlains Brief[Chamberlain's Letter]
08.xx Viererpakttendenzen[Four Power Pact Trends]
08.xx Gewerkschaften in den U.S.A.[Trade Unions in the U.S.A.]
08.xx London: Die Japanische Faust[London: The Japanese Faust]
08.xx Chinesisch-japanischer Krieg[Chinese-Japanese War]
P. is at Belfast 08.31 'Community and Society'
09.xx (Education for Citizenship - in England and the U.S.A.)
09.xx Englisch-japanischer Zwischenfall[English-Japanese Incident]
09.xx Mittelmeer-Konferenz[Mediterranean Conference]
10.09 Aus der Woche [From the Week]
10.16 Aus der Woche [From the Week]
10.23 Aus der Woche [From the Week]
10.30 Aus der Woche [From the Week]
11.06 Aus der Woche [From the Week]
11.14 'What is Fascism? - Its Nature and History'
11.20 Aus der Woche [From the Week]
12.04 Aus der Woche [From the Week]
The Marxian Theory of Self-Estrangement” (1/2); "Trotsky's Position"
12.11 Aus der Woche [From the Week]
12.25 London: Englische Haltung[London: English Attitude]
P. reads Marx's Early Works and Kenneth Muir[4] 12.{26} Notebook XIII, 1-30
Participates to a Marxist (Christian Left?) seminar 12.28-31 Notebook XIII, 31-66
To Michael
(Conflicting philosophies in Europe)
(Christianity and economic life) + (Bemerkungen)[5]
Europe to-day


World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
H. G. Wells, World Brain. Karl Mannheim, "Planning for Freedom". (Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, Kommen die vereinigten staaten von Europa?.) Participates to a Marxist (Christian Left?) seminar 01.01-02 Notebook XIII, 31-66 + “Notes of a Week’s Study on The Early Writings of Karl Marx and Summary of Discussions on British Working Class Consciousness
P. reads G. Lukács' History & Class Consciousness 01.xx Notebook XIII, 67-90
01.15 Aus der Woche [From the Week]
P. reads “Saving Remnant” 02.04 Notebook XIII, 91-99
P. works on ”Tame Empires” (without exact date) 02.19 Aus der Woche [From the Week]
02.26 Aus der Woche [From the Week]
03.05 Aus der Woche [From the Week]
(1st Moot meeting) 04.01-04
05.05 The Marxian Theory of Self-Estrangement” (2/2)
06.19 To {Ottofranky} (a friend)
07.06 To x Basset
John MacMurray, “The christian answer to fascism”, speeches delivered at a conference at St. Asaph, N. Wales. St Asaph Conference of the Christian Left 07.30-08.05
P. publishes a bulletin for the Christian Left Group 08.__ Critique of Pacifism
Christian Left Pamphlet n°1: “What is the Christian Left?” 08.26 To Felix and Adele Schafer
(2nd Moot meeting) 09.23-26
10.10 To Adele Schafer
John Macmurray, The Clue to History Christian Left Pamphlet n°2: Kenneth Ingram, “Will Britain go fascist?” 11.09 To Adele Schafer
Second annual Meeting of the Christian Left (London) 11.26-27
12.xx (Ukrainian Problem)
12.20 To Adele Schafer
'War and Peace on the Danube'
'Versailles and After'
'Aims and Methods of the Third Reich'
'Xty and the Present System of Government'
'Democracy and Culture in England, America and on the European Continent'
(The Meaning of Peace)


World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
(3rd Moot meeting) 01.06-09
H. G. Wells, The Fate of Homo Sapiens[6], H.G. Wells, The New World Order.
Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, The totalitarian state against man
01.17 To Adele Schafer
P. gives a lecture in London 01.28 Deutsches Leben und Schrifttum, I - 'Die Lagerung Deutschen Lebens zu Beginn der Neuzeit'
P. publishes a “Bulletin for socialists” 02.__ Russia in the World
P. gives a lecture in London 02.04 Deutsches Leben und Schrifttum, II - 'Gottsucher: Von Meister Eckhart zu Luther und Kleist'
02.11 Deutsches Leben und Schrifttum, III - 'Von Hegel und Marx zu Hitler'
02.18 Deutsches Leben und Schrifttum, IV - 'Seele und Geist: Ludwig Klages und Othmar Spann'
02.25 Deutsches Leben und Schrifttum, V - 'Österreichs Beitrag'
Cardinal Pacelli is elected Pope with the name Pius XII. 03.02
(4th Moot meeting) 04.14-17
P. publishes a “Bulletin for socialists” 05.__ The Cry of the Chartists 1839-1939
P. publishes a “Bulletin for socialists” 08.__ Coercion and Defence
(5th Moot meeting) 09.23-24
Christian Left Pamphlets:
N°3: Kenneth Ingram, The Christian Left and the Churches
N°4: Fanny Street, Can the Christian Stay out of Politics?
11.07 To Michael
11.xx To Michael
11.__ The C. L. News Sheet N°17
(The Fascist Virus)
(Fascism and Socialism)
(How to Make use of the Social Sciences)
'Society, Government and Economic Life under Fascism and Communism'
'Italy’s Place in Europe'
'The Spanish Civil War and its historical Background'
'Social and political Theory'
'British Characteristics'
'The Historical Background of the Eastern Situation'
'The U. S. S. R. in World Politics'
'Central Europe'
'Foreign Policy and Post-War Reconstruction'
'The International Situation'
'Moscow and the Vatican'
'The Planned International Organisation. The United Nations'
'Russia and the British Working Class'
'Recent Social Factors in Recent European History'
'Xty and Economic Life'
'Christianity and the Modern Forms of State'
'Secular Civilization'
'Fascism, the Common Enemy'
'British War Aims and Central Europe'
'Conflicting Philosophies in Europe'
'What Kind of World Order are we Fighting for?'
'Balance of Power in Europe after the War'
'Balance of Power outside Europe'
'France To-day'
'The Locarno Powers London Talks'
'The Christian and the World Economic Crisis'
'Uj Külpolitikai ABC'
'The Rise and Decline of Market Economy'
'Politics and Psychology'
'Munich and Moscow'
'Introductory Notes to Karl Marx's ‘Political Economy and Philosophy’'
'National, Economic and Social Crisis in Our Time'
'European Minority Issues, Solved and Unsolved'
'Trade Unions in Central Europe - After the Catastrophe'
'The Balance Sheet of Treaty Revision'
'On the Brink of a New Era of Religious Wars'
'Post-war Balance of Power Outside Europe'
'The Political Prerequisites of a Stable and Just World Order'
'History in Our Days'
'The Structure of Political Science'
'The Break-down of the International System'
'The Democratic Alternative: Is America an Exception?'
'European Civilization in Transition'
'The Cultural Background of the British Working Class'


World Events Polanyi's Life Date Document
The Czechoslovak National Grand Lodge re-establishes, in London, its activity under the protection of the United Grand Lodge of England and its lodge Comenius in Exile has its membership drawn from the political and military exiles in London. Amongst the brothers: Dr Edvard Beneš (Czechoslovak Exile President 1941-1945 in London) and Jan Masaryk (Exile Minister of Foreign Affairs 1940-1945. Member of Comenius in Exile lodge, London). Shaw the poet
(Democracy vs. Total crisis)
(The Methodological Problems Connected with the Question of Capitalism in Antiquity)
(Western Socialism: A Tract on Values and Power)
(Economic History)
(Can peaceful civilizations be virile)
(The Roots of Pacifism)
(Britain’s Foreign Policy)
(Britain and Poland)
(European Minority Issues, Solved and Unsolved)
(What Is the Real Character of the Economic Crisis?)
(The Eclipse of Panic and the Outlook for Socialism)
(Individualism and Socialism)
(Politics, Psychology and Ethics)
(Psychology and Ideology: actual and assumed motives)
(Maturity and the Common Man)
(Rational and irrational factors in Politics)
(The Structure of Political Science)
(Ignoring the obvious)
(England Torn between Europe and the Pacific)
(Experiences in Vienna and America)
(A moszkvai konferencia után) [After the Moscow Conference]
'The Theory of Politics'
'America, 1943'
'The new Nationalism in Europe'
'Capitalism in Transition'
'How can the German People be reintegrated into European Civilization?'
'The Nature of International Understanding'
'Culture in a Democratic England of the Future'
'Britain and Russia on the Danube'
'The Problem of the Mediterranean'
'Education and Social Reality. Austrian Experience'
'Education and Foreign Policy What Can Education Do to Improve the Foreign Policy of a Country'
'Nationalism and Internationalism'
'On political Theory'
'Interventionism and the Alternative'

Bennington Interlude (Writing of The Great Transformation: 1941-1943)


World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
(J.H. Oldham, The Resurrection of Christendom) Christian Left Pamphlet n°5: Collective, Where Do We Stand Now? 01._
(7th Moot meeting) 02.09-12
(8th Moot meeting) 04.19-22
P. begins being lecturer at Bennington University[7] 07.01
(France) Beginning of the Vichy France 07.10
August On Propaganda


World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
Karl Mannheim, “Diagnosis of our Time”, lecture at Conference Federal Union at Oxford P. begins to write (what will be) The Great Transformation (by then called the Liberal Utopia, Origins of the Cataclysm), in Bennington. Ilona is with him.[8] 2nd half of Jan.
H. G. Wells, Guide to the New World 02.23 To Kari
04.23 Can Hitlerism solve the World Problem?
“P. secures a Rockefeller Fellowship that enables him to be employed at Bennington for two years, formally as a resident lecturer but without teaching responsibilities.”[9]
 He spends the night at Drucker's (in Bennington) 07.26 To Ilona
08.04 The Essence of Fascism (1941)
08.22 To Michael
(Government and Industry)


World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
H. G. Wells, The Outlook for Homo Sapiens; The Conquest of Time; (w/ Lev Uspensky) Modern Russian and English Revolutionaries, Phoenix: A Summary of the Inescapable Conditions of World Reorganization 02.17 To Toni Stolper
P. publishes the bulletin “for Socialists” n°7 05.__ The Law of Freedom by Gerrard Winstansley. 1652
09.12 To R. H. Tawney

1943 (Until Autumn)

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
First pub. of Karl Mannheim's Diagnosis of our Time. Wartime Essays of a Sociologist (No exact date) P. writes a Memorandum concerning the plan of a book on the 'Origins of the Cataclysm' 01.xx
03.01 To Oszkár Jászi
Masonic lectures in the Comenius Lodge in exile, in the Freemason Hall, with the title “Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk a Mason without Apron?”[10] 03.12
03.25 To Mr. Cuningham
03.xx Why make Russia run amok?
04.10 To Eunice Lisowski
Signs a contrat with Farrar & Rinehart (N.Y.) for The Liberal Utopia and The Common Man's Master Plan. 04.13 Contract
05.07. To Gordon X
To Joseph H. Willits
Lecture tour in American Universities; he finishes the writing of The Political and Economic Origins of our Time (= The Great Transformation).[11] Summer

1943 (Since September)

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
Back to London P. and I. Duczyńska meet Count Károlyi[12] 09.xx To Kenneth Muir
P. is in London.[13] 09.22 To Michael
10.10 To Mrs B. Wootton
10.13 To Michael Polanyi
10.25 To Michael Polanyi
11.01 To Oszkár Jászi
11.13 To G.D.H. Cole
12.13 To Oszkár Jászi


World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
John Macmurray, “Changes in Philosophy” & “Religion in Transformation”, in J.R.M. Brumwell (ed.), This Changing World Polanyi spouses become members of the Hungarian Council. P. main role seems to promote cooperation between Károlyi and Communists. (Towards a New October Revolution in Hungary)
(The Meaning of Parliamentary Democracy)
03.10 To Michael Polanyi
Farrar & Linehart publish The Great Transformation 04.13 The Great Transformation
05.06 To Michael Polanyi
07.15 To A. D. Lindsay (“Master”)
08.17 To Taylor ?
??.?? To Michael Polanyi
Signs a contract for The Great Transformation with Victor Gollancz 11.21 Contract
Majdanek Nazi Camp Trials 11.27-12.02 'In the Hands of the Vanquished'[14]
12.06 To Mihály Károlyi
(The Study of Human Institutions (Economic and Social)
 'Collective Security=Conditions of Peace'
'Politics, Economics and Society'
'International Affairs'
'The Danubian Countries'


World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
Freemasonry is allowed again (until 1950) in Hungary[15]; H. G. Wells, Mind at the End of Its Tether 01.xx Universal Capitalism or Regional Planning?
07.21 Yogi and the Commissar
09.21 What Kind of Adult Education
Victor Gollancz publishes the first edition of Origins of our Time. The Great Transformation (UK) 10.__
10.13 'Rise and Decline of the Profit Motive'
Ratification of the UNO's Charter by the five permanent members of the Security Council and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. 10.24 To Oszkár Jászi (1945?)
'The Meaning of Parliamentary Democracy'
'Is Human Nature Unchangeable?'
'Europe today and tomorrow'
'The Role of Strain in Institutional Change'
'Outlines of Policy on Jewish Question Arising During the Emergency Period in Central and Middle Eastern Europe'


World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
Victor Gollancz publishes the second impression of Origins of our Time. The Great Transformation (UK) 01.__
Ten Lectures on the Changing Structure of Society, Extra-Mural Studies, University of London xx.xx 'The Changing Structure of Society'
A Crossman ellenzék felvonulása[The Emergence of Crossman Opposition]
04.15 To Mihály Károlyi
Count Michael Károlyi
05.02 To Fritz Levi
05.10 To Miss Chapter
05.12 To Oszkár Jászi
05.15 To Oszkár Jászi
P. is lecturer for International Affairs at the National Summer School at the WEA for Trade Unionists, at Ruskin College.[16] 08.24-31 'United Nations Organization'
P. writes to various students of the NSC at the W.E.A. for TA 08.30
09.17 Világkapitalizmus vagy regionális tervgazdaságok[Universal Capitalism or Regional Planning?]
09.26 To P.I. Painter
To Denis Realey
10.12 To Robert MacIver
10.22 To P.I. Painter
10.25 To Endre Havas
11.26 To Karl Mannheim
11.xx Adult Education and the Working Class Outlook
P. reads K. Mannheim's Diagnosis of our Times 12.07 To Karl Mannheim
Mannheim writes to G.B. Jeffery that he has received an invitation from Columbia University [but we don't know for what] and has refused[17] 12.26
'Western Socialism. A Tract on Values and Power'

1947 (January)

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
01.06 To Michael[18]

Notes and References

  1. London, The Industrial Christian Fellowship.
  2. KPA 47/06, 41.
  3. Dale 2016, 149.
  4. It can be in 1936, but more probably 1937.
  5. Maybe not a Polanyian text!
  6. A.k.a. The Fate of Man
  7. 48/01, 159
  8. 59/02, 1.
  9. Dale 2016, 156.
  10. Freimaurer Wiki “Grand Lodge of the Czech Republik” (EN)
  11. Duczyńska 1970, 29/12, 53.
  12. Duczyńska 1970, 59/02, 53.
  13. See also From X (28 September 1943) that proves that P. is already in Great Britain
  14. Dating not sure, estimated on the fact that P. speaks about Majdanek.
  15. Src: Blog de la R:.L:.Francois RÁKÓCZI II, « Brève histoire de la Franc-Maçonnerie en Hongrie »
  16. To Denis Realey (28 September 1946) [48/01, 109].
  17. H.E.S. Woldring, [1986] Karl Mannheim. The development of his thought, New York, St Martin's Press, 41
  18. MPP 17/01, quoted by Gareth Dale [Dale 2016, 232]