Austrian Period (1919-1933)

From Karl Polanyi
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Key : “Name” or „Name”: article; Name: book; (Name): draft article; (Name): draft book; 'Name': Speech or Conference; <Name>: Plan; To {Personal Name}: letter

1919 (since August)

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
Reestablishment of the First Hungarian Republic leaded by Gyula Peidl. 08.02
Establishment of the Hungarian Republic with Archduke Joseph August as Regent of Hungary 08.07
(Rudolf Steiner's The Threefold Commonwealth) 10.12 Weltanschauungskrise. Zur „Maschinerie der Gemeinsamkeit” von Prof. Foerster
10•12.xx (Worauf es heute ankommt. Eine Erwiderung) [What matters Today. An Answer]
(Coll. of which H. G. Wells) The Idea of a League of Nations & The Way to the League of Nations (Über das Wesen der Ost-Europäischen Wirtschaftskrise)
(Korai kereszténység és a kommunizmus Rerefémpéj és Kommüni” / “Ó Rerefémpej és Kommunizurplus)
(Marxismus und geistige Arbeit)

Gegen die wissenschaftliche Politik“ / „Behemot“ Sub-Period

Cf. also Fragments of Draft Manuscripts in German (1919-1922)

1920

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
G. D. H. Cole, Guild Socialism Restated “He [is] gaining confidence that his manuscript [Gegen die wissenschaftliche Politik] would shortly be publishable.” “He [is] able to spend some months convalescing in the Alpine resort of Semmering and in Reichenau, and his quarters in Vienna [are], at least, 'very comfortable.'”[1] Cf. Fragments of Draft Manuscripts in German (1919-1922)
01.07 To Oszkár Jászi
01.19 To Michael
Creation of the League of Nations 01.20
03.17 To Michael
05.20 To Michael
The Hungarian delegation signed the treaty of Trianon under protest 06.04
Max Weber's death 06.14
H. G. Wells, The Outline of History. Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind 07.02 To Michael
“P. [is] thirty-three years old, wasted from his long illness and very lonely. His outlook [is] deeply influenced by Tolstoi. He [is] like one who looks back on life, not forward it.”[2] He meets Ilona Duczyńska. Late Autumn
11.08 To Cecil

1921

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
Carl Menger's death 02.26
H.G. Wells, The Salvaging of Civilization O. Jászi hires P. as personal secretary and soon promotes him to the the editorial offices of the Hungarian émigré paper Bécsi Magyar Ujság.[3] Hivö és hitetlen politika[Believing and Unbelieving Politics][4]
08.12 Az új orosz politika esélyei[The Possibilities of Russia’s new Politics]
H. G. Wells, The Outline of History. (3d ed., revised and rearranged) 09.xx To Michael
09.18 Forradalom és ideológia. Jegyzetek Szabó Ervin hátrahagyott müvéhez
[Revolution and Ideology: Notes on Ervin Szabó’s posthumous Work]
10.26 To Michael
(Ist Sozialismus eine Weltanschauung?)[5] [Is Socialism a Worldview?]

Guild Socialism Sub-Period

1922

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
Max Weber, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft published by Marianne W. according to drafts left by her husband. P. reads Joyce's Ulysses[6] 04.16 A szocialista Nagybritánnia alkotmánya[The constitution of the Socialist Great Britain]
05.__ Sozialistische Rechnungslegung[Socialist Accounting]
06.06 Az antropozófusok[“The Anthroposophists”]
06.18 A gildszocializmus[The Guild Socialism]
07.xx Der Geistgeschichtliche Hintergrund des Moskauer Prozesses[The Intellectual-Historical Background of the Moscow Trials]
07.02 A szociálforradalmárok pörének történelmi háttere[The historical Background of the social Revolutionaries]
Rudolf Steiner, “World Economy. The Formation of a Science of World-Economics’. Fourteen lectures given in Dornach, 24th July to 6th August (GA 340) 07.24
07.25 H.G. Wells, a szocialista[H.G. Wells, the Socialist]
09.17 Karl Kautsky és a demokrácia[Karl Kautsky and Democracy]
09.20 A bécsiek vándoroljanak ki Ausztráliába![The Viennese should emigrate to Australia!]
09.23 Titáni publicisztika[Titanic Journalism]
09.26 A török renaissance[The Turkish Renaissance]
09.29 Az elnéptelenedő Franciaország és a gyarapodó Németország[The Depopulation of France and Germany is growing]
10.10 Új idöszámitás[New Era]
10.16 A demokrácia feltámadása[The Rebirth of Democracy]
10.24 Lloyd George[Lloyd George (English Version)]
11.02 Szabadkereskedelmet![Free Trade!]
11.16 Anglia választ[The English Response]
12.06 A „Consul“[A ”Consul”]
12.20 Szabotálnak…[Sabotage…]
12.15 Polly bácsi…[Uncle Polly…]
12.22 Látni akarunk[We Want to See]
Kiket tart H.G. Wells a világtörténelem legnagyobb alakjainak? [Who does H.G. Wells the Greatest Figures in the World History?]
H. G. Wells az eretnek fáraókról[H. G. Wells from the Heretics of Pharaohs]
 “A reparációs tárggalások magva[The Reparation Negotiations is a Seed]
Ami Írországban lehetséges volt[What was Possible in Ireland?]
Az angol választások[English Elections]
Válságos napok Irországban[Crashing Days in Ireland]
Hága után[After the Hague]
Választások mindenfelé[Elections Everywhere]
A német szén Odysszeája[German Carbon Odyssey]
Kokszot szénért!“ [Cock Carbon!]
Az Uj Macchiavelli, Kipps és Tono-Bungay H.G. Wells három regénye” [The new Machiavelli, Kipps and Tono-Bungay]

1923

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
H.G. Wells, Men Like Gods 01.18 Marne-csata a Ruhr-mentén[The Battle of Marne along the Ruhr]
Karl Polanyi marries Ilona Duczyńska at Protestant Dorotheer Church.[7] 02.xx
03.29 Gild és állam[Guild and State]
Honeymoon on the Baltic Isle of Rügen. Polanyi and Ilona begins to live in an apartment at Vorgartenstrasse, 203, Vienna, on Leopoldstadt District.[8] 04.05 Jézus feltámadása[The Resurrection of Jesus]
(No special date, maybe later in 1923) Ilona's mother, Hélène Békassy, and a domestic help live with them.[9] 05.11 Van-e elég kenyere Európanak?[Does Europe have enough Bread?]
06.21 A berlini fajvédők[The Defenders of Race of Berlin]
(July?) Karoline Hélène (Kari) borns.[10] 07.07 A félelem ellen[Against Fear]
10.03 Fehérek, feketék, barnák[Whites, Blacks and Browns]
10.16 Háború és béke kérdése Genfben[The Question of War and Peace in Geneva]
10.21 H.G. Wells, a civilizáció megmentéséről[H.G. Wells on Salvaging Civilisation]
Jakob Marschak, “Wirtschaftsrechnung und Gemeinwirtschaft 11.30 A német iparbárók kivándorlása: világtrösztök felé[The Captains of German Industry: towards global Trusts]
Egy könyvröl, amelyet ném olvastam[One of the Books I did not Read]
Az angol válsag[The English Revolution]
Miért Ingudazik u svajd frank?” (Unreadable title)
(Zum Begriff Bedürfnisskalen) [On the concept of Scale of Needs]

1924

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
Polanyi establishes a private, evening seminar on guild socialism. Hans Zeisel, Aurel Kolnai, Karl Popper and Felix Schafer attend to it. [11] 01.xx
02.26 To Ludwig von Mises
(April?) Polanyi begins to work for the Österreichische Volkswirt.[12]
06.xx Die funktionelle Theorie der Gesellschaft und das Problem der sozialistischen Rechnungslegung[The Functional Theory of Society and the Problem of Socialist Accounting]
11.xx England und die Wahlen[England and the Elections]

1925

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
"In 1925-26 he laid down ideas about the objectivations in a treatise which he intended to send to the journal Der Kampf. Whether it ever happened, I do not know. But during this time he talked to me a lot about this subject, because I did my dissertation about it.”[13] 01.__ Neue Erwägungen zu unserer Theorie und Praxis[New Reflections Concerning our Theory and Practice]
04.xx Zur Krise der englischen Arbeiterbewegung[On English Workers Movement's Crisis]
06.08 Von der Parteienwahl zur reinen Vertreterwahl[From Choice between Parties to Pure Representative Choice]
07.xx Die deutsche Antwort[The German Response]
08.xx Der Bergauproblem in England[The Problem Bergau in England]
09.12 Die neue Internationale[The new International]
10.xx Der Friede von Locarno[The Locarno Peace]
12.24 Letter to Richard Wank
(A társadalomtudomány) [The Social Sciences]
(Das Übersichtsproblem)[14] [The Problem of Overview]
(Das Übersichtsproblem, ein Hauptproblem des Sozialismus) [The Problem of Overview, the main Problem of Socialism]

1926

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
02.13 Die Wirkungen der englischen Kohlensubventionen[The Effects of the British Coal Subsidies]
03.xx Der Rückfall[The Relapse]
“Karl returned to further developing his Theorem in 1926, after a brief stay in hospital, the second half of April.”[15] {03-04}.xx Die Bericht der Kohlen-Kommission[The Report of the Coal Commission]
05.xx Der englische Generalstreik[The English General Strike]
05.xx Probleme des englischen Generalstreiks[Problems of the English general Strike]
12.18 Ein Vorschlag zur Wahlreform[A Proposal for the electoral Reform]
(Wer ist die Linke?) [Who are the Leftist?]
Review of HERTZ Friedrich, Feindschaft zwischen Kultur und Zivilisation
Folyóiratok szemléje[Periodical Observations]

Austrian Economics Sub-Period

1927

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
H. G. Wells, The Way the World is Going; The Open Conspiracy[16] 01.15 Nochmals 'Ein Vorschlag zur Wahlreform'[A Proposal for the electoral Reform, one more Time]
02.12 Aus der Woche [From the Week]
03.xx About the Goals of Hungarian Democracy (Letter to the editor of A Látahár)
06.xx Die neue Weltlage[The new World Situation]
xx.xx Letter to a comrade
((Auszug aus einem Referat) Zur Sozialisierungsfrage) [(Excerpt from a Paper) on the Question of Socialization]
A magyar demokrácia célkitüzéseiröl [About the Goals of Hungarian Democracy]
(Ist Sozialismus eine Weltanschauung?)[17] [Is Socialism a Worldview?]
(Zum Begriff Bedürfnisskalen) [On the concept of Scale of Needs][18]
Pure Economic Theory[19]

1928

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
H.G. Wells, The Open Conspiracy (a.k.a. What Are We To Do With Our Lives? 01.xx Review of L'annuaire de la Société des Nations 1928
02.xx Liberale Wirtschaftsreformen in England[Liberal Reforms in England]
02.25 Liberale Sozialreformer in England[Liberal Social Reforms in England]
03.xx Italien und Europa[Italy and Europe]
06.xx Schmalenbach und Liberalismus[Schmalenbach and Liberalism]
xx.{05-06}. Soziale Fragen der Rationalisierung[The Social Question of Rationalisation]
09.xx Kelloggpakt[The Kellog Pact]
(Hans Mayer’s Lösung des Zurechnungsproblems) (w/ Felix Schafer) [Hans Mayer's Solution to the Problem of Computation]
Munkanélküliség a szellemi pátyák köréhen[Unemployment among Intellectual Patriarchs]
Karl Kraus[Karl Kraus]
Az Új Középeurópa[The new Central Europe]
Review of JORDAN Károly, Matematikai Statisztika
(…das Wesen der Kaufkraftwirtschaftlichen Betrachtungsweise…) […the Essence of Purchasing Power Point of View]

1929

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
xx.xx Review of Political Book of 1929
xx.xx Review of Georg Hahn, Die Konkurrenz
06.xx Einsteins spezielle Relativitätstheorie [Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity]
06.xx A Galilei Kör mérlege[The Galilei Circle: a balance sheet]
06.xx Labours Sieg[The Victory of Labour]
06.xx Review of George Paish, World Economic Suicide
08.xx Englisch-amerikanische Flottenparität[Anglo-American fleet Parity]
09.xx MacDonald in Washington
09.xx Review of Völkerbunde und Press
12.07 To Donald Grant
Shortly after Christmas, the Macmurrays spend ten days in Vienna with the Grants and the Polanyis[20] 12.26-31
“P. has a lecture − "Reformietes Bewusstsein” − which he gave on the emergence of reform of consciousness in 1927 or '29. P. gave this lecture to a small group including Kolnyai, Ernst Karl Winter, and Otto Bauer. Winter wanted to build up an anti-Fascist group in Vienna. P. was interested only on his own ideas.”[21] "Reformietes Bewusstsein”

1930

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
(H. G. Wells (with Julian S. Huxley and G. P. Wells), The Science of Life) 01.xx Pax anglo-americana
09.xx Weltpolitische Unbehagen[World Political Discomfort]
09.xx?[22] Einführung in die Volkswirtschaftslehre[Introduction to the Economy]
Zur wirtschaftlichen Neuordnung Europas[On the economic reorganization of Europe]

1931

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
H. G. Wells, The New Russia; in France, Emmanuel Mounier creates the review Esprit 03.xx Bewegung in Europa[Movement in Europe]
09.xx Demokratie und Währung in England[Democracy and Currency in England]
10.xx Lavals sonderbare Reise[Laval's Strange Journey]
11.xx MacDonald und die Wirtschaftspolitik[MacDonald and the Economic Policy]
Neue Schutzzollwelle[New Protectionist Wave]
12.xx England auf der Waage[England on the Scales]
xx.xx Austria and Free Trade

Young-Marxo-Christian anti-Fascist Sub-Period

1932

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Date Document
First publication of Karl Marx's “Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844”, in German. Aldous Huxley, Brave New World. 01.xx Einer Reparationslösung entgegen[Towards a reparation solution]
05.07 To Irene Grant
06.xx Gleichberechtigung und Völkerbund[Equality and the League of Nations]
07.xx Kritik an Lausanne[Critic of Lausanne]
10.xx Gleichberechtigung und die deutsche Linke[Equality and the German Left]
11.21 To Michael
12.xx Die verschobene Weltwirtschaftskonferenz[The postponed World Economic Conference]
12.xx Wirtschaft und Demokratie[Economy and Democracy]

1933

World Events Polanyi's Extended Network(s) Polanyi's Life Date Document
Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany by President of Germany Paul von Hindenburg H. G. Wells, The Shape of Things to Come; in London, creation of the New Britain Movement[23]. 01.xx Die geistigen Voraussetzungen des Faschismus[The spiritual Prerequisites of Fascism]
02.11 Gegenrevolution[Counter-Revolution]
02.21 'Die Wirtschaft ist für den Faschismus' [The Economy is for Fascism]
02. xx Zweiter Fünfjahresplan abgebremst[Second five-year plan braked]
Polanyi family takes holidays in Yugoslavia.[24] Das Ausmaß der Wirtschaftskrise[The Extent of the Economic Crisis]
04.xx Kann Amerika den Weltfrieden retten?[Can America save World Peace?]
04.15 Weltinflationismus[World Inflationism]
In France, creation of the review L'Ordre Nouveau (linked with the New Britain Movement) 05.xx Von Lausanne bis Washington[From Lausanne to Washington]
05.xx Abrüstung und Revision[Disarmament and Revision]
06. xx Viererpakt statt Abrüstung[Four Pact Instead of Disarmament]
06.24 Staatsgründung[State Founding]
07.xx Brain-Trust siegt[Brain-Trust wins]
07.xx Roosevelt zerschlägt die Konferenz[Roosevelt smashes the conference]
07.29 Hitler und die Wirtschaft[Hitler and the Economy]
09.xx Austria and Germany
10.xx Der 14 Oktober[October 14]
11.xx Der Mechanismus der Weltwirtschaftskrise[The Mechanism of the Global Economic Crisis]
11.xx Ein Gefährlicher Aufbauplan[A Dangerous Construction Plan]
12.xx Eine Welt im Wanken[A World in Wavering]
Faschismus[Fascism]
To Michael

Notes and References

  1. Dale 2016, 64.
  2. Duczyńska 1970, 29/12, 50.
  3. Dale 2016, 65; See also Duczyńska 1970, 29/12, 51. The BMU, “funded, to his discomfiture, by the Czech liberal leader Eduard Beneš, was the foremost publishing organ of Hungarian exiles and emigrés. Its ambit was global, but its most important achievement was to provide regular reports on what it termed “Magyar fascism” [Dale 2016, 65]
  4. I follow here Gareth Dale and Adam Fabry [Polanyi 2016, 99], and not 01/40 that dates this text in ”1928”
  5. „Über die Freiheit“ in POLANYI 2005
  6. Cf. A. Rotstein, “Week-end notes” XIX, 32.
  7. Dale 2016, 67.
  8. Dale 2016, 67.
  9. Dale 2016, 69.
  10. Dale 2016, 68.
  11. Dale 2016, 71. Gareth Dale writes that Peter Drucker attended the seminar but the latter wrote in 1978, that he met Polanyi in November 1927; See also Schafer 1964; Schafer 1973-1974.
  12. Dale 2016, 70
  13. Schafer 1964, 15.
  14. The date is almost arbitrary, but I believe it's after „Sozialistische Rechnungslegung“ -- Santiago Pinault
  15. Schafer 1964-1966, 44; “Vorgartenstrasse, 203” [2000], 337
  16. A.k.a. What Are We To Do With Our Lives?
  17. Über die Freiheit in POLANYI 2005
  18. The date is not sure. Must be after 1923, since the text is about Carl Menger's 2d edition of the Grundsätze der Volkswirtschaftslehre . -- Santiago Pinault
  19. Estimated date; the KPA says 1924-1927…
  20. COSTELLO J. E., [2002] John Macmurray. A BIography, Floris Books, 200-201.
  21. Abraham Rotstein, Weekend Note XIX, 31.
  22. It's a lesson, so must be on the beginning of the school year.
  23. RIGBY Andrew, [2006] Dimitrije Mitrinović. A Biography, 132.
  24. See. Schafer 1964, 63