Notebook XIII

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No 1945

{Med} 11th 100 lf


To read use stiff white paper behind each pageF

[3][1] Irene Grant
25 {Becombe br}
N 12

[5] Content of Philosophy crit.

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1) Crit. of Com. international ∴USSR ∴Stalin withdraw from world Revolution.
(a)They say “economically is possible”
(b) ______ world revolution: for reactionary reasons.

(a) is a crit. of judgment or theory
(b) "  "  "   of a person - human judgment

__ 1924 Stat san to politic no bourgeoisie possible but to achieve ___ in Russia world revol. necessary and now Stalin says the society is achieved.

Considered NEP an illustration of concession W capitalism - ie necessary retreat. But Trotsky himself advises retreat (eg partitions of Russia)

“Government of dictatorship of proletariat” {hers} {bein} strengthened. But in that case state stands at once begin W die away.

But have not new conditions ____, making change of policy necessary? But Trot. says - they should have seen enough ahead to be faced by “unsuspected”/{unsefected}. Often {arene} inefficiency - they need not, if clean, be side{traduc}. army, up to 1934 was small {Handgy} volunteer!

Today Sta{nty} any hugely increased and reflects decay in the country. Exclusive pampered, well kept - re-{nofaill} in volunteer army.

[6] Neo Constitution {atraverty}. In early days necessary to save votes only w {knuten} people. But in socialist society such, {orloen} {orany} secret fall of shouldn't be necessary - it is a manifestation of early capitalism (actually today only one nominated to each word - “thus showing unity of people”)

Production Nothing like as high as western capitalism. Tacitly pre-socialist condition by socialist method. Can't {become} -
Dispute of {Trotsky} & Stalin shaws variety of poss. interpretations of Marx.

Effect on Trotskyists outside {South} (M Cole says she can see quite well how Trot. {SWR}. {Fond} {end} relevat (partitioning) necessary ie could work so much with apport or be become identified with it.

speech in New York - forms of soc. property not get {Hastiges}, but in conflict with the people - the bureaucracy will not much longer be suffered.
Of European polit. .G. down the USSR will be crushed. If oppos. happens in West opp. will also happen in Russia.
Trotsky is ________ to save USSR.∴
revolution in at best one western industrial country.

[7] It still not {building} socialism it is mislead the workers of the works, finally losing then support.

Opposition to collectivisation one to a {contidtion} that it showes go hand in hand itht he industrial policy.

K. Ingram would world revolution have {obvated} a bureaucracy?

Mac […]

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Karli Trotsky says “bureaucracy is inevitable result of mistaken effort to produce socialism in Russia, in a non-capitalist country, it cannot function - except in a bureaucracy. Because scarcity of goods make compulsory … […]

[8] Diffic. of discussion is that neither Trot. pos. nor communist pos. is … […]

Unless Trotsky really is trying … Stalin {rco}, then there w__ to us position discussing him.

But Trotsky says that __ have excused a permit of terrorism – ∴he doesn't, he says, try to do {any} with Stalin {rco}.

But was all _____ carried ___ly Trotsky {its}.

If Trotsky came in in Russia, what is there programme? - Like in 1917 - Lenin ∴ Trotsky want say the question is an abstraction. Such a change would actually. __tail wars about Russia on Russia ∴ revolution: ___ally out all _____ would say that in the meantime he would fulfil a “retreat” policy – _______ collectives, {stasty} peasant ________ __ (Possibilist régime.)

How is this consistent with POUM line which is ie Gvt with socialist _____? A soviet regime in Barcelona would mean war in Europe - They ____ use Frank ______.

[9] Theory of not inconsistent, but worry.

(a) Because something has really been achieved […]

(b) doesn't ___ in Fascism Emergence of ____y ____.

R isf
(I) an illusion to have bourgeois resolution without workers pressing for socialism ∴ Bolsheviks must accept this.
(II) But this economically _____ in a _______ country ∴ would revolution ___ ___ condition (Permanent revolution)

Lenin accepted that regime can't ___ __ without ___ revolution happening.

1923 NEP […]

1925 […]

1927 NEP ____ ________ - because gvt has ____ again _______ “peasants” … not ___ Fascist ∴ {werd} Socialist. Because Russian industry going to win ∴ Restart industry or … Hence
1928 The Five Year Plans –
Here Stalin {rco}, had {ruly} one line (this couldn't [10] do more about world revolution. ___ Stalin started out on Socialism in he country.
Lenin would have done something {through} he never said so-)

At this {pant} Trotsky said go on - ic industrial workers must hold power, _____ peasants. He said you need not take ___ of peasant existence to such an extent. ___ in world revolution: China …

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∴ Trotsky was {promited font}, - ____ - manoeuvre.

But this no real alternative.

Trotsky works on West as …

Trotsky is a Russian politician, the next after statism.

There was a break from _____ (permanent revolution) or Stalin - yet Stalin insists on ___ regarded as a Leninist. “They are all Fascists” is not a controler but a _____ for the masses:

Opposition of Lenin & Stalin on _____ of bureaucracy or reaction ______.

[11] What is happening in Russia now? _________ is “bad things”. ∴ ____ of revolutionary forces in this country. They do not think of world revolution.

____ it rallies (a) Trials (b) Russia ____ working classes.

Position in Russia How […]

  1. real socialist political opponent.
  2. You can use Trotsky label to cover real mistakes.
  3. ________ non-Trotskyste polit-opponent (eg normal criticism.)

K.I. If you have, as here, […]

[12] Democracy is a […]

Dictatorship is a transition _____ - […] permanent; socialist says no. A materialist ___ […]

  1. Dictatorship in USSR …
  2. Or in …
  3. + competition.

Or ______ in USSR purely socialist.

Dictatorship is a strong executive - the question is from what? - a democracy my have to set up such to defend ____.

The ____ […] radical propaganda shoot - {sp} in England.

It cannot … catastrophic changes - begin there. socialism will not come in peacefully anyway.

Trotsky ______________

Nothing in Marxism wh. can answer to situation in which Socialism is _______ achieved.

[13] The achieved must be defended … of soc. movement […] of remaining asocialist or becoming conservative. Marx had no suggestion. Trotsky denies the achievement, … sacrifice it for utopia.

Forces socialism is not _____ _______ of meaning of life, or ∴ we are not afraid of this amont of partial achievement.

Com. attitude quite … developing revolutionary consciousness.

The only answer for Marxist is early Marx.
The ____ expresses a real crisis one to Russian achievement.

[…] Every achievement is the negative face that hasn't been achieved.

____ what you do -- […] USSR

[14] […]

[15] - not a question of _____. Can have a complete move to Fascism with a handful of Fascists. Only hope is not to have a situation let. Democracy. Capitalism, unless you are prepared to put socialism in its place.

Com assertion that you can't reform system under capitalism. In an exploratory capitalism you can get reform? ∴ theory of ____ the middle-class has no ____. They will go ever __ _____ who offer a solution.

2 leady group: Capit. oligarchy

Socialist must do the same as Fascist - offer a real socialism solution to a real problem.

Pop. Front is unity every ____ against Fascism united front unites one class.

Liberals is the {comity/country} identify society with Capitalism.

You can't run a class war front [16] {and} then. ___ the Liberals obey now no class war - you can […] Party.

New human ____ has to be evolved - and used as steel-ribbing of the soc. parties.

Trotskysm is (a) anti Russia -(∴ unreal)
(b) {fostery} cheap hope of automatic value of socialist happening.

If Sov. Russia included in any manifesto should it be cardinal _____ or merely included?

What should we then

[17] Karli: Early Marx.

soc. achievement ____ ___ has forced a crisis in where socialist movement inside ______ Russia - […]

(a) Socialism
(b) class war
(c) Nature of Revolution

(a) […] […]

On Thesis über Feuerbach - soc. soc.? is human society. By human he meant animal character __ humanistic as vs. {their live} [18] Soc. shaped by achievement of community - This has a direct relation to question facing {principle} in Russia today - Socialism, Fascism, when question of forms is up.

(b) Class war, ____ of working class, I am … […]

The early Marx 3 relevant points (I) W. class not defined by factual social … […]

i.e. Society could consist of worky people, but ____ of owning people. ____________ Proudhon - Importance rises out of his relation: […] society as a whole (cf. Hegel or “totality”)

There (a) representative (b) its role in service _______.

Meaning is - Only whole of mankind has significance meaning - ∴ _____ of mankind is history, of mankind as a whole, […]

[19] This is Marx's historical materialism. - He assumes that material production must be to the road of mankind as a whole. But if you assume that development of production is _____ condition, […]

Middle class […]

But -- why __ this effort of w. class be successful? Marx […]

[20] it […] this is the real class consciousness. […]

Some of the w. class […]

C. Nature of Revolution
notice !relig. […]

∴ related to meaning of human ____ […]

The Early Marx revol. change = breaking in of force […] (refer to Hegel Weltgeist.) In Marx, it was seen fulfilment of men = nature of history.

[…] [21] not a subjective thing, this change.

Change comes from nature of man (not subjectivity)
change comes from without (as it where) " would disappear - become a choice of change. Necessity would cease, freedom would begin.

This went … […]

The intellectual climate was simple improvement to Early Marx. It even made Marx himself … in a Hegelian jargon. Even early Capital is unecessarily abstruse.

[…] critical works of Marx were related to theological problems of time - vs. Baner vs. Stirner, vs. Proudhon - (Heilige Familie written vs. B. Bauer, Heilige Marx vs. Stirner, __ anti-Proudhon, i.e. “Poverty of Philosophy”?

Proudhon formulated “free co-operation of individuals is socialism” - i.e. cooperative [22] idea - This Marx work … in society as such Lenin … were real socialism.

Feuerbach was the man who mediates the {theological/theoretical} problems to Marx.

On position (theological) was Marx's man interest. Just as John Mac. sp. (understand w. K. class restructure of society)

Ruth.[2] Implicits in Jewish Church of Revol: what about Jesus regarding arrest & trial?

Jesus = relig. refers community

Three Temptations, show he underst[and] not polit. ____ not supernatural.       not (______) economic. attach 3 interprets to dominant interprets of this time you see how alone he was.

{W.} K. __ material his ___ of history = growth of progress were inevitable, not : {strange} line, but __ death & rebirth; it did not ____ supernat. intervention, no complete separation.

[23] Jesus = prophete s priest
men must ask & {late} responsibility instead of “______ing __”. It is up to man; it is man who must do the {forgering}: man {in/is} turning from___ negate his own natures ∴ he has to turn the converted.

The point asked, was that Jesus that of Theocracy.

I. Implicits of revolution: Jewish Church.
“Not destroy, but fulfil”, how much he condemned
authoritative, or avoided Church.

Jesus began in Synagogue. Not ___ clue his teaching but on… […]
In Sermon on Mt he quest to ___ of Jewish law.
It was construct. way he dealt with criticism.

In J. position we see a free person naturally acting ____ -- as opposed to law: 2nd mile, woman. Year - real attitude, outcome of inner attitude.

Re: […]

Reaction of Church: […] ”Phar____ aff____” - Jesus said “Every plant --- ________; let them alone.”

Second Point: now in addition; following this _____ ____ of g. to become course of opposition.

Who do men say I am?

Peter's answer, means turning fit - he sees he is being [24] misunderstood -- + ___ into ___ aggressive policy. After the answer Peter gave the points __ “Go up to Jerusalem suffer many changes, the ___ to death. Peter {remonst} ∴ he thinks traditionally of the “Christ”. Soon after comes the departure for Jerusalem. __ than material about “Signs of time”. {Cloud} = sign; {touch} wind blow = tent – “How cannot you see the signs of times”.

Cf. the Galileans (Jacob Maccabean) – unless he {refont} shall all perish. Obvious that Jesus was not looking on situation as polit. prob. leading to polit. action __ ___ an understanding of real _____ for “freedom” should have been present specially among disciples.

Phariseis come said “look out, ” “Go back there that did for (Herod) that prophet.

Jerusalem was apix of ____ _______ − ∴ they must know that he will be killed − not because all prophets were − but because they were the religious centre.

Didn't fall into the political traps − remained religious ___ ____.

“______ have ______ ______ drawn across the ____ If you think the is Caesars give it back - But I'll go on {Dermanty/Gesemany} that you do the just ____ ___ the multitude”.

“Beware of Phar etc.” “__to the son of men”
“Be y not Rabbi” “Call no man master.”
“Greatest among you will be your minister”

[25] “W__ unto the S___ & Pharisians, hypocrites.”

Here ______ the political aspect in relationship of the Romans.

A serial revolution in Jewish society was a religious revolution for the Jews - it was a theocracy.

Did Jesus suddenly in the trial, realize that he had {restored/relooked} something *[p 1] − that he {covered} come to power, + on the side of the Romans − perhaps even become Roman Emperor! Only this could stop from going on to power.

Did death was the way to ____ him […] clarification it was instituting.

Kenneth Muir Heart 2XL message.
Power to … of success.

Period of disaster before universal socialism. Defend on it things 1) Complete clarity
2) Complete commitment

[26]1) Not ______tly intellectual - _______ we must be clear where we differ from […] a)
c)____ diff. from orthodoxy Not enough __ knows that Jesus has been constantly _____es. We must know what in Gospels are reliable.
Must know what in worry with “fashionable theologies?

This ____ Earlier, this are__ “true” then Gospels. -

State plaintly that characterics of ______ are a _____ of Xty - FV of an […]

But clean in feeling in faith (religiously clear). Intellectual clarity insufficient.

Not ____, but swimmers.

Nature of __belief […]
[27] 2) Commitment
Intellectual agreement is not agreement in Commitment. Attitudes to Churches - Difference here
Attitude to democratic method - difference these

Clarity, commitment - ____
Nature of commitment - Give up ____ to cause of Socialism _ for such ____ likely, W. happen - he must see ____ failure, or get stand by the government that seams the______.

[28] Early Marx


The answer is NO. Early Marx condemn the essential elements.

The wider conception is the pocket torch − your own affair!

Objectivation v fetishization is only mentioned in Capital, but fully in the Early Marx.

The way human mind would work would depend on structure − in Capitalist world it would work an atomized fashion − He was ________ Cap ____ or saw it would think of everything in analogy to its economic terms. Capital is not a success as an Economics of Capitalism − it is a success as ______ __ _____ of conceptual life in Capitalist society. "a theory of exploitation", … its (exploitation) is a fact not a problem.

Liberal says if are exploitation. Marx […].


[30] Early Marx __ K1847. With Communist Manifest he went political.

{Deutsche Ideologie Political Economy Philosophy _____

Historische Materialismus{

{Critic of Hegel's Philosophy of class state (ed. Mayer & Landshut)

Macmurray in Xty Soc. Revolution
Dialectical Materialism

? (Dec 28 - Jan 2)

[31]Past _______ - B______ Dec 28 - Jan 2

Dec 28 Three ____ _____ (1) Theoretical - Early Marx & Xty

(2) Religious work of group. Stand for message
(3) Working class movement task - Reforming Point: working class consciousness. “Building a new life tissue”.

Nature of Brit. democracy? Brit, working class?

Time Table

Tues. Gen. outline of Marxism I
Wed. Hegel, Feuerbach, Marx II
(Philos. Dev. of Marx) III
Thurs. Materialistic Determination of History IV
Fri. Marxian Econ. Politics V
Sat. Early Democracy VI
Sun. Reform of Working class consciousness VII

Marxism Not a system of knowledge. A method of ______ social or historical happening. ∴ a prophetic teaching. Most powerful prophecy ____ Jesus - the evolution of a truth which this becomes active in history.

Since Jesus' revelation of nature of human life, there was _____, no other occasion on which formulation revolution [32] had such results in history.

But also a scientific method
(a) What it is?
(b) What are the results?

__ field in anthropology - a complete science of essential nature of man. Marx makes this {fundamental} to this method.(C° to collective part of theology - but we ____ regard it rather as philosophy - not biological anthropology.) Here reference is not to man, but to mankind - the genius - Like Jewish community, all human happening taken in refer______ mankind - this is the totality of reference ∴ is anti-individualistic (in Jewish community it was relation of community to God) Imp. form_____dy of his philosophic method.

_________ - K. totality. “Community” character of human individual. Only so could he use Hegelian method (turned upside down) - ie relation ___ of idea to real world other way round. But the real with which he started, must be a totality. (ie w. Marx mankind)

Man becomes fel. when society is such that man is free. Man here not just “an individual” of socialism is a condition of society in which man is free having overcome the community phase, it is society as whole which has [33] overcome - the individual couldn't do it (the dialectic process in the mind of a man is only in “pre-thought” - {what} is happening in history. Man is not a thinky {berny} alone - he is {pant} of the material world - & a unity in it. The material basis of society is given. Production must go on in any society. Actual form of this depends on actual mean of production. ∴ interest of society as a whole demands {apology} this thesis, best use of productive forces must be {seened}.


I Society consists of {molty} use but in relation ____ State institution __ are essential to Marx's “concept” of society.

II character of that society determined by character of that relationship. Thus human society consists of human relationship {of} not, dialectic (___ w change) sets in.

Which are the essential relationships? Marx says, economic life […]

[34] […]


[35] [36]

[37] Mx somewhat Interest & Profit are inherent in Capitalism (The State = objectiv, so theory of state dying) dy. of what? ---- ans. of human relations are self-alien & objectivation synonymous? Not in com. society. Not always ∴ synonymous (cf. anarchist).

Dialectic as General Method.

Is Dia. Materialism to say Marxism Dialectics. Accepted {Trotsky} - Russian Engels Anti-Dühring interpretation also socialism: 1. Type of society 2. Properly {dyalein} 3. Ideology (of des c. {wortez})
(This leads to theory of class consciousness & {forelet} Revolution.)

2 is dependent on 1.

Start P_ of Marx was effort to understand his own world in simple terms; after that he was concerned with {Wor}-class revolut. (in Germany) (The socialist solution was not to be seen in Mx in 1837 -- but it was there in 1841.)

Early Works Marx
His ____ was liberal non-religious. This he {begantz} accepting. Vet passionate anti-Semitism & anti-Xty (like Hitler only for opposite motives.) He made Jewry responsible for all the bad in Xty, while Hitler makes it responsible for all the good.)

[38] Early Works of Karl Marx
(In Landshut & Mayer in German)
1837 Marx letter to his father
1840 Doctor's thesis
1841 Critique of Hegel's Philos. of the State

___ {unity} of Critique of Hegel's Philo of State Marx __ ______ & actual succeeded in turning Hegel's method upside down. In Hegel “Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of the State”. Mars deals with Fascism under the term “corporations” & “burgerliche Gesellschaft” (mistranslated so fou. Karli suggests {merely/words} “industrial life”.)

Articles & Papers - ____ Rheinische

1842 Zeitung […]

1843 Deutsch Franzözische Jahrbücher […]

1844 National Ökonomie […]

[39] 1844-5 Heilige Familie - anti-Bauer vs. Bauers affects of Su's nor

1845-6 Deutsche Ideologie a collection of works, […]

1845 Leipziger Konzil (a German socialist group) Not of gt importance.
Heilige Max (Stirner) […]

[40] 1847 Poverty of Phil. (Anti-Proudhon)

1848 Communist Manifesto Landhsut and Meyer, Early Marx, carrie title “Historical Materialism”?

Marx and Engels {continually} intolerant to basis of their movement - _____ theological atmosphere which ____ them realistic importance of unity (or} clarity.

9/10 of Marx is theol. discussion to answer opponents - even Proudhon who looked upon atheism as a religious position - he is wavered between positive theology ({seducing/reducing} nature) or negative a ({induc.} nature.) Blake a similar Luciferian position -- cf. Lawrence, Macmurray Etc. Stood for “marriage of Heaven? or Hell - Reason & Emotion.
Proudhon's anarchism fused with anarchist atheism.

(See for ______ Handbook of Marxism “Deutsche Ideologie?) [41]

I. Thesis. Marx objects __ activity-reduct. w thinking - Feuerbach only conceives of {man so}.
II. Thesis.
III. Thesis.
IV. Thesis.
V. Thesis.
VI. Thesis.
VII. Thesis.
[42] VIII. Thesis.
IX. Thesis.
X. Thesis. "civil” society = industrial life (Ger: “bugerliche Gesellschaft [43] ie […]
XI. Thesis. Marx accepted fact that in philosophy he could add nothing to Hegel

[44] Dec 30th. Morning

Start at __ ____ (says Karli) with Engels “Feuerbach”

[45] […]

[46] […]

1840 Doctor's Thesis. Here Marx accepts Hegel as the Aristotle of his day ∴ situation of philosophy was critical - it had comme w a finality. But what about the world? It is split, disrupted. Awful. A complete, perfect philosophy or a _____ incomplete world! […]

[47] […]

(Here he began to reject Hegel, but not reached historical materialism)


[48] Even Marx…

Hegel says…

Marx says…

1840 [49]

[50] He tried to answer these within “Hegel's Philosophy of the State”. This constituted a ___ step away from Hegel. One sentence has ___. […]

it was the totality of mankind, not “the State” (Tolstoy: the common life is the real life. Self-alienation is alienation from his brother, not from himself.) Here he touches Jesus


[52] On Hegel that which …

[53] […] ∴ went on study of political Economy

1844 Then wrote National Ökonomie v Philosophy …

Hegel represents attempt ____ process of self realization in mind, then term “thought” important 3 stages:
1) Simple conscience
2) Self - "
3) Reason

[54] This presented as process in which thought (or knowledge) realises itself as absolute thought or knowledge. Marx writes passage

Marx said this ___ must apply to man, became [55] his activities ______ actual objects, which cannot revert inW the actor when ______ (e.g. a table!) Hegel hadaccepted what human activity {lear} ____ alienation about him activity of thought. (this are {Jeed of idea of _____} in community.

(1) He reversed subj.-obj. relationship
(2) He {regarted} activity as {_______ly} ________eft
(3) He showed it ________ be the activity of a "separate” individuals at all - ____ of individual in community. Alienation or estrangement is the non-personal __ a non-psychological sense - i.e. they _____ an objective condition which means they cannot.


…the personal of man - it is complex tentative, but he almost … point! Macmurray eventually comes.

[55] his activities {partner} actual objects, which cannot revert {wW} the actor when ____ (eg a table!) Hegel had accepted that human activity {Lead} to self-alienation about ____ activities of thought (this are Seed of __, idea of individual in community.

Marx (1) He reversed subj.-obj. relationship
(2) " regarded activity as ___ly ___ft
(3) He showed it_____ be the activity of a “separate” individuals at all - but of individuals in community. Alienation or estrangement is the non-personal in a non-psychological sense. - ie they ____ an objective condition which means they cannot (as soon as ______ community […]

[56] […] existence means being the sensual object of someone else. […] personal nature of man - it is complex tentative, but he almost got there - K which point Macmurray eventually comes.

Historical Materialism


[57] in a reasonable form. Knowledge of […] X).

The knowledge of self-estrangement does not of itself lead to the {resolution/revolution} of it; ∴ man is not a […] Criticism = recognition of the incompleteness of existing accuracy, __ part of the process of history. Therefore criticism needs men to sing its own melody. Task = to show up the point of self-estrangement of man, thereby to point to the revolution […]: went to politic[al] Economy.

[…] tragic fact with the division of labour which _____ the starting point of {outer} interdependence?

Jesus could deny society because there has no such problem; Marx must conquer & transcend it. The interdependence caused by division of labour is a different, new peculiar or tragic kind but contains also the seeds of its non-resolution. This means that Marx was primarily dealing with the problem of society?

____ ______ would go back on [58] division of labour; the Spanish anarchists would reduce the ______.

Hence the special role of the proletariat who in fact suffer the result of self-estrangement, to bear __ themselves the of its resolution.

Marx never thought that the {prosperity} solution was a sufficient solution of the human problem.

Dialectical Materialism
Engels - Handbook of Marxism

Dialectic regarded as formal happening altogether (is a subj.-obj. happening)
1) change of quantity into quality as a dialectical process
2) Interpenetration of opposites: mutually antagonistic forces …so the Russian today {sepoint} it
3) Relationship of theory (&) practice - not to be regarded as separate, but inter-related. Practice being the {corporation} of theory. Theory {it/if} widely spread {her} practical effects. in practice of masses of people.
(See Anti-Dühring.)

[59] Dialectical opposite are rightly […]

(Engels was far from materialist outlook. Would never have said […]

[60] usual friend position called it a 'fonction of the brain' - man being regarded as a machine […] mental phenomenon parallel to it.

See again Handbook p. 224 Handbook.

Not […] Engels says … […] Hegel went so far as to say that the … … of the dialectic of the mind. Hegel's scope Engels thought, was justified, but the relation of concept to nature injustified.

{We/He} would {say} Engels also injustified - why apply.

But the Russian ___ […] the quality of mind”? […] Mind is distinct but not separate.

[61] There is no separate existence, they say of mind from matter; consciousness comes through the changing organization. It is something new emerging - consciousness is not the development of something {talent} or potential, but something brought to birth newly. How relate dialectical law to matter - is the question they ask {or so} answer. We {say} question you cannot relate dialectical laws to nature matter as such - one look at the 3 points - of dialectic mentioned at the beginning - You don't need dialectics to describe, e.g. the growth of a plant - Engels thought Hegel how discovered the law underlying the change which happens in the growth - of a plant and modern science. Dealing with _____ of processes, wouldn't need terms of “quality”, only “quantity”, thereof also here dialectics not needed - because science deals not with essences, but with simple descriptions.

Imagine the universe ____ under “one law” - then the dialectic is that part of it which know through on consciousness - it is the human or social which we understand by this method what does it mean to assert that the same is the ___ of happening or of understanding in [62] nature? We commit see or understand happenings in nature ___ - one is agnostic. {One/Owen} ____ possibly have to have __ consciousness of the plant to understand how the dialectic _____ applies. […] - it become a mind pattern.

The Russian materialist position loses the real meaning of the dialectic. - Because ___ basis is the subj. - object relationship __ classical philosophy ___ subject is defined as that which cannot be object. But in Hegel it can, or Marx turned it sound say it is human activity thought, or human activity. So! {The thought} becomes its object, - Dialect […]

[63] This is pertinent to works class role.

The dialectic is the ___ (I) Man {starity} from a primitive commit - with no division of labour, where relationship are human, ____ an organic pattern of {existence} (e.g. feudal). Here the unity of society cannot _____ seen ______ big “individual”. Capitalism alone ____ about a situation in {Klud} individuals can see again the possible unity of society - for it brings a system presupposing equal, isolated human things, where fore makes a society in which, by atomistic v _____y organic growth, it makes it clear that a new unity would be achieved - In Capitalism, when problem of society emerges. It emerges as problem of society as a totality. It becomes a problem of world history, or only the proletariat found itself in being as world (international). Regional & specific relationship have been {problem} & done ___ with - There ___ ____ only a whole solution. Fascism accepts the challenge constitutes society - as society - but an inacceptable one from human point of view.

(2) This totality recognition is the begin of the proletariat {underbeing}. For its [64] existence is the result of the process of Capit. having gone to its limits. ___ constitute themselves as a class, or doing so they understand society as a whole. Therefore they lake of the general meaning of the loss of human status means asserting the human, or thus de______ the survival of the conditions which prevent human status. It cannot as a class, become conscious, without the content of its consciousness being the assertion of humanity.

(This is why Fascism determines on the {skummation} of the world “CLASS”. This is the dialectic (subj.-obj.) process. The workers class becomes conscious of the nature of its own recognition. This the understanding of its own position which is the decisive step which brings the {landside} about - the _____ which causes things to move.

Dialectical materialism is that ____ (understood orthodoxy) does away with Marx's own idea of realism, philosophy (is living religion.)

[65] (acceptance of society

naive _________

The old Jewish religion how on acceptance of society - the prophets _____ against it, and Jesus put an end to it *[3], reached the almost pure anarchist position discovery. The essentially personal. On pure Catholic thought the acceptance of society was born again but almost at the cost of all Jesus' leading. Liberal protestantism destroyed this acceptance set up the individual atomism, competition expresses in a capitalist society. Marx is the new acceptance of society in such a way as to conquer it, {rso} to set free the real life discovered by Jesus.)

(For the Liberal atomistic individual there was no collectivity but ___ ____ meaning of life - hence _____ of feeling of ____ guilt - the individual predestination - even a bad one - was a sort of certainty in accepting uncertainty, which was the one thing that made this atomistic society bearable at all. The disintegration of medieval corporate evidence was the cause of this - {community} - had been the method of medieval existence - This [is] not necessary to think of capit. without ____ of feudalism, _____ __. But rather the ____yzation of feudalism [66] leaving a terrible vacuum in which atoms _____. So _____ {anthurst} of fear, _______ & atomistic religion. Religious persecutions began in modern history - ie 1xth 5th Century or it was persecution of intellectual religion. Law must be “sound in the fundamentals? (_______ insight about this conceptions of the right form{al} of a concept being vital, - ____ ___ come to a point where one now {my} be the thing on the understand, acceptance of which life hangs. Jesus knew the _____ said “never ___ differing from people, if they do it in my name, or my sense? If they do it in my sense, later they will come to as all right.

Why had Jesus to die identified with the Jews? Of throne wouldn't understand the meaning of a faith who had it, then who should? He must get ______ of the Jews somehow because this was the people who had it - this limit of him freedom, than ___ accepts the limit - it was to be ____________ self-realization of their own ___ by the Jews.)

Cf. Jewry {thers}

History & Class consciousness - Lukács, 1923


[68] […]

Marx said it is the historical or social reality which is dialectic. Engels misunderstood Lukács re-understood Marx.

About Engels, Lukács said lack of understand of him (anti-Dühring) has confused the {understandy} of Marx. Engels didn't include sub-. obj., theory-practice in this description of dialectic. Lukács says rigid causality disappears, … […]

… but only releases [69] happening under the above conditions - this is the difference bet. Engels & Marx.

Difference bet. “ideal-dialectic”, “real-dialectic” (subj.-obj. relationship = theory & practice).

ideal-dialectic, _________ objects, is an improved form of conceptual thinking.

Revolutionary Dialectic presupposes true subj.-obj. relationship in which the object changing itself is the very understanding of itself.

Don't say “Young Marx” or “Early Marx” but “Early Work”.

Most important assertions of … […]

[70] (Marx said about nature senses ___ - that will the new society actually new sharpened physical senses as it ____, would emerge - ie a real “touch with nature” - a new ear or a new eye we shall have -

See National Philos. & Ökonomik



[72] The English Working Class & English Democracy
(Political Background)

Karli: The character of english life.
Lack of urban culture.
Hate of legislative action or government interference.

What is meant by democracy?
Two meanings of democracy in the Anglo-saxon world: (1) a state of society - which fulfils demand for equality (anti-aristocracy)
(2) democracy = liberty, & is a method of dealing with affairs.

(1) is on aim (2) is a method. This is more current in England.


[73] [74] [75]

[76] was a system of land leisure (military). Sovereignty was in England super-unified […]

… England as a method of protecting liberty? If democracy a method of deliberation […]

[77] cannot this safeguard groups who want never get majority. - eg Scotland, or a religious minority. - except by accepting limiting the state in religion […]

[78] by this 2 party democracy - because they involve a disruption of community.

The King vs. feudal organization gave way in 1688. K a “whole” inside class-ruled community, in which compromise was a possible method - as it had not been before.

If this democracy is breaking down. What of working class?

Look at Economic development.

England … […]

[79] in a certain way us unknown. Worker on continent never struck really except for wages or standards. Herein […]

This may mean catastrophe for the Eng. working class is not … […]

[80] Class-consciousness of the Brit. Working Class (Economic background).


In France, 1789 ___ to 1917 in Russia const. gov. or reprs. institution were […]

∴ In Eng. democracy not egalitarian; continental was. In Russia, a socialist form of democracy […] class [81] revolution, […]

[…] [82] ___ or was unsepetcly terrible … the Eng. society.

Industrial revolution is from 17__ […]

[83] […]

C Class-Consciousness of Brit. working Class (Religious Background)

The Brit. working man has merely … […]

[84] is to do away this pseudo-religion through a real experience, a religious one, with or Marxist understandly of his world himself. […]

On England there is only … In Vienna the whole working class culture of life forms were … conscious reformed by the way in which he decides …

[85] 2. Reforms of life in for exemple […]

[86][…] The religious Position which he assume
Reference of Xty - This is crucial
We must not imagine that we start out with Jesus in concept, or them so ahead.

He became aware of the lack of meaning in life in our present society - or … this is a religion situation. We must find life - in spite of society - [87] by whatever means we seek to understand society or “accept the facts”, we suddenly discover all over again Jesus, as the key, the {torch}, the revelation by which we become clear that there is an understanding of life or a mean to which we can relate ourselves in our present actual situation or realise our meaning but understand our role, our place in realizing in actuality thus meaning, this essence -

So that it is not a … […]

What happens is a re-reading of socialism in a religious experience. We cannot assume that the need of {our} time is for Xty - through in the process we have discovered that for ourselves.

[88] What ones our religious position assume in the way of message?

1. he usually say it assumes a crisis in the world?

2. ∴ an attitude of expectancy - of something in store -

Ca, a working man, look at this look forward to the importance or significance of his own existence?

Here we part company from New-beginner who would ass a this point.

3. that ∴ there is nothing to do or indeed we can only submerge ourselves & accept the fascist era.

We are a M____ point.

({B/3}) that ∴ you have all to hope for & can actually relate yourself to this {sepectancy} ___ so doing from the meaning & significance of your life.

To the working man we can say this relating of himself to history or its meaning is the very thing which {trees} him into a new life in which he choses his standards …

[89] depend on which are the people with whom we make contact.


(Missing pages)

Pages 90-98 of the Notebook are missing, at least on the pdf archive.

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“Saving Remnant”

[91] (Feb. 4, 1938)

There is a positive dynamic in history of which the dialectic a describes the way the positive overcomes the negative at its worst - thronef that may include complete obliteration in failure of disaster.

It is the function of a saving remnant carry over a consciousness of the meaning and significance of a life all institutional embodiments of which may have perished or even beat to the minds conscious ____ of the vast majority of human beings. This function cannot be fulfilled by an individual but only by a community constituted by this consciousness.

The possibility of human society surviving sudden transformations can scarcely be {deplained} without reference to the special function of such committees. This function is possible [92] the emerging society with that vital understanding of life which will enable it to {pessist}. The community itself having lived by it in a _______ mechanical society - (a saving remnant) the thus believe in such “saving remnants”, and their function. An ultimate assurance even in face of the possibility of catastrophe or failure.

He reject the temptations which are implicit in this fact, namely the {wolcany} of catastrophe as the opportunity for individual salvation. The saving of ones life by taking mystically upon oneself the decision w {lose} it.

[93] Statement on Commitment (feb 4-5.)

The socialist conviction and activities of the members of this groups are rooted in a religious experience. This experience springs from the recognition that man's inner freedom today with the inescapable fact of society.

[94] Kenneth Muir {Blake} Alone period … like … struggle … universal human society: brotherhood is religion _____ed Fr. Revolution […]

1793 Interaction of attitude to politics of the other things. Before Fr. Revol. only Songs of Innocence a description of King. of Heaven (childhood). Five pos later (after Rev:) Songs of experience? Two contrary states of human evol: the latter - after - the Fall.
Fr. Rev. made his views on art, psychology, sex etc. revolutionary. Blake already religious against injustice in Songs of experience? _____ Church & Co because used as excuse for exploitation . With sex morality. Before songs of experience is a poem on Fr. Revol. (only one book written & not published. Belonging of an epic after French Revolution. Unique as revolution poem because it gives reaction (the Devil) more than his one, to show seriousness of the conflict. Hoped the privileged classes
1790 I would give up then privileges. but the revolution ____ of Marriage of Heaven & Hell “Without contraries is no progression” - Good is the passive, objective reason. Evil is [95] energy or emotion.[4]

(1) Man has nobody from his soul (instead of vice versa)
(2) Energy is only life _is from the body
(3) Reason is the outcome circonference of energy.

Energy - the Devil - {Millon} of the devils party without knowing it. (Luciferian)

Read Proverb of Hell.
Read “America”

For Blake no waterlight compartiments - his art supersession of art, as his poem other politics. Described capitalism, alienation in Marx's terms. “Self-alienation”

His views on religion change a lot. Developped stress on conflict but reason & emotion - in Jerusalem {Milton} describe religion as brotherhood. But in prefaces a somewhat different description. Most profound {o}bjcation w religion of his time was its identification w. morality - which would make Socrates saviour. Morality is only forgiveness. Forgiveness of Man by Joseph was of the Essential nature of the incarnation. “Take away the remembrence of sin”. Cf. Macmurray in Creative Society.

“One for another to first off by forgiveness every Sin” (Mutuality of forgiveness)

Polanyi's Notes

  1. * i.e. that Pilate would come out - for him, even bring him to power.

Editor's Notes

  1. Archive pagination.
  2. Must be Rutherford.
  3. * by ______ national Jewry set identifying himself to death with his “people”.
  4. Original text: “Without Contraries is no progression. Attraction and Repulsion, Reason and Energy, Love and Hate are necessary to Human existence. From these contraries spring what the religious call Good & Evil. Good is the passive that obeys Reason. Evil is the active springing from Energy. Good is Heaven. Evil is Hell.”

Document Informations

Date: 1936-1938
KPA: 07/03