Notes of Readings on Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft by Max Weber (Folder IJ 3 f)

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[102] {STRABO} ANT

[103]Notes p. 1 Sociological terms

SOCIOLOGY “Sociology” - a discipline aiming at an understanding of social behavior ad its causes & efforts.
p. 6
Speculation & Empirism in sociology
M.W. goes to great trouble to show that (a) adequacy ___________tion is an insufficient (b) probability of actual occurrence is also needed
Pol: principles of behiavor
actual institutional patterns


16 x) adequate interpretation
XX) actual occurrence


[104]Notes 2 M. Weber: Sociolog. terms

M.W.'s _________ seems to be very far reaching, since the “______ method” which he advocates appears to be dependent upon the persons definition of ______ on non-individualistic ________.
anti-psychologist {Sophology} irrelevent for sociological deduction. Behiavor is neither p____ nos unp_____
Sociology not more “psychological” than physiological or mechanical.
mentalism It's not __ that that ___ is W.
physical is psychological
“other der Sinn ____ ____ exemples den jemand meint, ist doch ____
against Psychology “Rationale ____ ___ ______: …werden uns macht durch ein ____ _________ durch “psychologische {Erinnungen}”
Pol: “verstehend” refus to psychology “verschieende psychologie” “a help is __ understanding of irational behavior (not of rational behavior)

{politico + sociology: non-psych.
{irrational __: {psych.}

{personal life = irrational
{social } life = rational
{political }

[105] M. Weber: Sociological categories

Notes 2a

__ there a sociol. of _____? _____ ____ we “understand” then…

“On understanding (Emp____aheit) of the motives of danger is not,
SCHAFFLE Stress on “methodological individualism” (also Popper) - ____ of the individual behaves “{understandly}” Schäffle only regarded as a starting point with his onomatistic assumption or “functions” the _____ institutional brokes in human society.
ANTI-INDIVIDUALIST individualistic method _____ no indiv. valuations or ideals - the opposite a “non-______ misunderstandings”.
DEF. OF HOLISM Polanyi: though functional - holistic - concepts are ___ly ______ of sociological _______ their __________ and _________________ in this regard is undeniable.
FUNCTION & MOTIVE This in response to Othmar Spann's insistence on the need for deciding what a thing or entrepreneur or ______ is for? What ___ he does? For how otherwise on we decide about the importance or an importance of any part of his behavior? Yes this is the __________.

[106] Notes 3

4 types of motives The 4 motives of social behavior
Motives: 4 kind of motives 1. Mean-end 2. valuational 3. emotional 4. ____________
MW: this grouping is _______ exhaustive.
rational means here: “means to an end - in which case only (i) is rational
Pol: if rational means understandable, then there are innumerable other types of behavior (induced by awe, magic, play, duty, hate) MW seems to achieved __…
Actual motives almost always “{ansied}” he adds (_____ ie from his point of _____ is ______ _____ ________
p13 Social relations: Behavior _____ on the other person + probability of its actual sociology deals with typical occurrence of probable references of behavior; no with the ex___________ of important events (as history does) Pol: “chance” ought to be translated: probability
social order: validity of ___ order us measured by the actual social relations are being approved of simplest “validity” is the assume of approved of the actual community (Vergemeinschaftung)
Community contractual?
social behavior oriented on the feeling of community ({Zusammengehenheit})
contractualisation (Vergesellschaftung)
Social behavior aiming at rational compromise on ___ conjunction of interests.

[107] M. Weber: sociological terms
Notes 4

of ______
this may be the result aprovement (_________, contract)
Tönnies's fundamental work ____ mentioned
TÖNNIES also p. 1
_________ of social relations are both communal or contractual, he says.
Critique of M.W's “found motives
MW (a) 4 motives of social behavior are neither exhaustive nor characteristic of any thing (except an idealized materialism)
(b) 2 types of social behavior no ____, ____ great _____ 4 are {need}
M.W.'s purpose: to establish “materialism as equivalent to _____ human existence.
MARX sociological approach too much influenced by Marx and Engels and via Tönnies and Sombart.
MAINE SH Maine via Tönnies
“_______”: struggle ____ said not to be restricted to comp____. Ruthless selection just as usual inside “communities (formal as)
Selection a normal process. Every social

[108] Notes 5

M Weber: Sociological terms

SELECTION order results is something of selection(of the type ______ by that order)
Pol: confer: Ruth Benedict _____ etc
Pol: MW realised the limited importance of the distinction struggle & cooperation since communal forms of groups are not exempt from ruthless selection (of in family, marriage, ______ ____ etc)
Pol: What […]

[…] Pol:


Pol: What

[109] M.W: social classes _______ _____ ____!!!

So M Weber:




Critique of MW:
A middle clan Marxist - {scheme} of Marxist “extremely middleclan, economy is identified with the market and pure _______ becomes marketism. He was {formalised} by Marx's economistic ideas, but looked upon the market as the archetype of the 'economic'. The …

[111] […]

DEFINITION Polanyi's critique continued:
(a) gain = any surplus

(b) excluding it to non-material

Bentham + Freud: felicitous calculus +s< […]
MW analysis of market

[112] Notes 9. M. Weber: Sociological terms in economics

LEVELS of Treatment
MW deals with the {sozial} on 3 levels:

(a) gen. soc. terms
(b) sociol. of econom. history
(c) descriptive ex. hist. in soc.terms cf. Marianne Weber: Preface to “Typen der Vergemchlg u. Versgesschafg[1] _______, p. 181
Oct 1921

Cf. Menger M. Weber’s definitions for collective apparent process are vague on the crucial point. If market motives are the essentially “economic” what in the {veisme} of gainful they certainly are – then the economical be the production of material goods, for the two are {enlivef} different. In effect, if the first definition is mainted there exist no specifically economic objects - if the latter is {achieved} to, then there exist {tnuf} objects, but no specific motives to them. The first position was consistently maintained by Menger, Robbins, etc.; the second is by myself.

[113] Notes 10 - M. Weber

M. Weber: Economy --direct:
drops: substantive definition

Economy as scarcity action […] […]

Pol: Max Weber ____ ____ order into the field for the simple reason that he centered his investigation on profit-seeking action - on the _____ in the gain-seeking person to the extent _____ elements were absent, the thought of it as merely a quasi-economy…


[117] M Weber

Notes 14

important for my critique … - well, not according to the substantive definition! “choice equaled with exchange à la catallactics”

[118] Max Weber make a ____ _____ the archetype of the economic.

Two roots of the ____ economic.

(A) ______ for material want satisfaction
activity: production (not transport)
may be d___ or _____
strictly indirect {org} insofar as the means p_____ed are despised to save material want satisfaction.
(B) {Oh} not: login of rational action (ends or means relationship)
formal {tendencies}
choice betw. scarce means (involving alternative uses & gradually ends)
{About} economics: application to want satisfaction ___ material means.
Deduction of system of terms = {melanging} exchange as a manner of acquisition
motives: gainful exchange
emotional- material -     religious

M Weber {strongly} economistic, _____ of “fetish of work.”

Marx 1/2 {economistic}. Too __________ close to classes (a) _____ {tt} of nature (b) econ. interpret as history

[119] M Weber

Notes 15       E.1.1.

new rationalism
Polanyi: i.e. on markets
37 critique M. Weber discusses under exchange the typically non-exchange acts of reciprocity which are “gifts”

[120] M Weber

Notes 16

critique of MW

[121] M Weber

Notes 17


[122] M Weber

Notes 18

NATURAL ECONOMY this contrast of tausch wirtschaft (market econ.)
x    Natural wirtschaft (planned econ.)
shift the emphasis from pre-monetary to post … Then M.W. missed the point.

[123] Max Weber :


Modern capitalism
'capitalistic forms of acquisition on the whole {common} West and East. But one form peculiar of the West: rational capitalistic
106 & 109
Money G.F. Knapp has shown …

[124] Max Weber

Notes. 20.

Typus der Verpfründung: 1. collectively to prospective civil

118 Main Kategory: Obstruction of market economy: He regards the whole history of the economic organisation of public _____
118 In spite of the ({seeming}) absence of any obstruction consisting with origination of public bodies no capitalistic economy developed in vast regions of the globe[.] On the other …
119-121 §41. On 'Die Triebfeder des Wirtschaftens' (Radical individualism)
Of a socialistic organisation of economy:
in a socialist economy, in principle behavior would be oriented precisely
EGOTISM postulated
The constellation of arests would change, the means of one's interests would be different, but this (above) would still hold good. Though certainly behavior oriented on other interests thanone's own takes place for ideological reasons, it still remains true that the mass of human beings does not act interest way, as experience proves, is not able to act in that way, and consequently, will not act that way.
In other words, MW. remained true to the {trite} selfishness theory of economic motives and his investigations into the history of human civilisation taught him nothing.
He ______ he had found a {wild} … […]


[125] “Interests”: this is a {mpteyterm}, clear {org} in regard to market-constellations.

Useless (a) person defined

(b) scale {opalues} recognised
(c) emphasis on disregard of consequences to “others”

[126] M.W.

Notes 21

p137 Parrossial” - term: by Haller's {Resbaurabend Pfaaburssenchaften}
patrimonalism Bv: below argued that no purly patrimonial or purely feudal political ______ existed in the M. (MW agres)


Document Informations

Date: January 1947[2]
KPA: 07/09, 100-126

Editor's Notes

  1. Vergemeinschaftung und Versgesellschaftung?
  2. Cf. On January 6, 1947, Polanyi writes to his brother, he is reading all Max Weber. [Dale 2016, 232]